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Pinus echinata Mill.
Shortleaf pine, Yellow pine, Spruce pine
USDA Symbol: piec2
USDA Native Status: L48 (N)
The most widely distributed of the southern yellow pines, a large tree with broad, open crown. This is a 50-100 ft. pine with short, spreading branches forming a pyramidal crown that opens with age. Bright green, 5 in. needles grow in tufts. Trunks of larger trees have broad, flat, reddish-brown plates.
Shortleaf Pine is native in 21 southeastern states. An important timber species, producing lumber for construction, millwork, and many other uses, as well as plywood and veneer for containers. This and other southern pines are the major native pulpwoods and leading woods in production of barrels. Seedlings and small trees will sprout after fire damage or injury.
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial Habit: Tree Leaf Complexity: Simple Leaf Shape:
Reddish brown Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Feb , Mar
, WV Native Distribution:
to e. TX,
n. to NJ, WV,
s. OH, KY
& s.e. MO Native Habitat:
Dry, sandy, acidic soils of rocky, wooded ravines, bluffs & upland plains
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry
CaCO3 Tolerance: Low
Soil Description: Dry, sandy soils. Acid-based, Sandy, Sandy Loam, Medium Loam
Conditions Comments: This is the hardiest and most adaptable of the southern pines. It is very drought-tolerant and fairly slow-growing. It is troubled by Nantucket pine tip moth, fusiform rust, root-rot organisams, southern pine beetle and other deleterious insects.
BenefitUse Ornamental: Attractive, Fast growing
Use Wildlife: Cover, Nesting site, Seeds-Small mammals, granivorous birds.
Larval Host: Elfin butterfly.
Sow fresh, untreated seed in late fall. Seed Collection:
Collect cones from vigorous trees in late summer and fall just before they completely open to drop seeds. Spread cones on racks to dry so they will release seeds. Cones may be shaken to release seeds. Store at a moisture content of 5-10 %
fresh weight. Commercially Avail:
Prevent complete soil dryness, Prune to maintain shape, Remove dead growth, Fertilize 3 times a year with lawn fertilizer 3:1:2 ratio
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)
is a larval host and/or nectar source for:
Mr. Smarty Plants says
Evergreen plants safe for horses in Louisville, Kentucky
May 16, 2010
I have a horse farm in Louisville, Ky. I want to plant evergreen plants along the walls in front of the horse barns. What types of plants are not toxic to horses can I use? Thank you so much for all y...
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From the National Suppliers Directory
According to the inventory provided by Associate Suppliers, this plant is available at the following locations:
American Native Nursery
- Quakertown, PA
Record Last Modified: 2013-09-05
Research By: TWC Staff