Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) Sw.
Cutleaf toothwort, Pepper root
Brassicaceae (Mustard Family)
Synonym(s): Cardamine laciniata, Dentaria concatenata, Dentaria concatenata var. coalescens, Dentaria laciniata, Dentaria laciniata var. integra
USDA Symbol: caco26
This perennialís 6-12 in. stem is topped in a cluster of small, four-petaled pink or white flowers. Terminal clusters of white or pink flowers on an erect stem with deeply cleft leaves. They stand above a whorl of leaves that are deeply divided and coarsely toothed.
This species was formerly known as Dentaria laciniata. Twoleaf Toothwort (C. diphylla, formerly Dentaria diphylla) has only two nearly opposite, deeply dissected stem leaves, each with three toothed lobes. Toothworts bloom in the spring; the common name refers to the tooth-like projections on the underground stems.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Retention: Deciduous
Size Notes: Normally 6 to 8 inches high, but can reach 15 inches.
Flower: Flowers 3/4 inch
Fruit: 1 inch
Size Class: 0-1 ft.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: White , Pink , Purple
Bloom Time: Mar , Apr , May
Bloom Notes: Blooms before deciduous trees have leafed out. Flowers normally white tinged with pink or lavender.
DistributionUSA: AL , AR , CT , DC , DE , FL , GA , IA , IL , IN , KS , KY , LA , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MO , MS , NC , ND , NE , NH , NJ , NY , OH , OK , PA , SC , SD , TN , TX , VA , VT , WI , WV
Canada: NB , ON , QC
Native Distribution: Western Que. to MN & NE, s. to Gulf Coast states & e. KS
Native Habitat: Rich woods; wooded bottomlands; rocky banks & bluffs; limestone outcrops
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
Soil pH: Circumneutral (pH 6.8-7.2)
Soil Description: Rich, mesic to moist soils.
Conditions Comments: Tolerates seasonal flooding and limestone.
BenefitUse Ornamental: Contributes early spring color to the Southeastern woodland garden.
Use Wildlife: Consumed by White-footed Mouse.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Interesting Foliage: yes
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)
West Virginia White |
Learn more at BAMONA
PropagationPropagation Material: Root Division , Seeds
Description: Can be easily multiplied by rootstock division when the plant is dormant. Be careful, as rhizomes are easily broken. Seeds should be sown on a moist, shaded seed bed immediately after collection. Expect the seedlings to flower in 3-4 years.
Seed Collection: A long, slender pod splits open 4-5 weeks after the bloom period. To catch the seeds, collect the pods when the seeds have turned dark brown and allow the pods to dry and split in a paper bag. Seeds lose viability quickly in storage.
Commercially Avail: yes
Maintenance: A light, leafy winter cover is desirable.
Find Seed or Plants
View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.
National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Suppliers DirectoryAccording to the inventory provided by Associate Suppliers, this plant is available at the following locations:
Edge of the Woods Native Plant Nursery - Orefield, PA
ArcheWild Native Nurseries - Quakertown, PA
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Delaware Nature Society - Hockessin, DE
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE
BibliographyBibref 928 - 100 easy-to-grow native plants for Canadian gardens (2005) Johnson, L.; A. Leyerle
Bibref 1186 - Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America (2005) Covell, C.V., Jr.
Bibref 1185 - Field Guide to Western Butterflies (Peterson Field Guides) (1999) Opler, P.A. and A.B. Wright
Bibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski
Bibref 1294 - The Midwestern Native Garden: Native Alternatives to Nonnative Flowers and Plants An Illustrated Guide (2011) Adelman, Charlotte and Schwartz, Bernard L.
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Cardamine concatenata in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Cardamine concatenata in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Cardamine concatenata
MetadataRecord Modified: 2013-09-09
Research By: TWC Staff