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Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) Sw.
Cutleaf toothwort, Pepper root
Synonym(s): Cardamine laciniata, Dentaria concatenata, Dentaria concatenata var. coalescens, Dentaria laciniata, Dentaria laciniata var. integra
USDA Symbol: caco26
USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
This perennialís 6-12 in. stem is topped in a cluster of small, four-petaled pink or white flowers. Terminal clusters of white or pink flowers on an erect stem with deeply cleft leaves. They stand above a whorl of leaves that are deeply divided and coarsely toothed.
This species was formerly known as Dentaria laciniata. Twoleaf Toothwort (C. diphylla, formerly Dentaria diphylla) has only two nearly opposite, deeply dissected stem leaves, each with three toothed lobes. Toothworts bloom in the spring; the common name refers to the tooth-like projections on the underground stems.
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial Habit: Herb Leaf Retention: Deciduous Size Notes:
Normally 6 to 8 inches high, but can reach 15 inches. Flower:
Flowers 3/4 inch
1 inch Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color:
White , Pink , Purple Bloom Time:
Mar , Apr , May Bloom Notes:
Blooms before deciduous
trees have leafed out. Flowers normally white tinged with pink or lavender.
, WV Canada: NB
, QC Native Distribution:
Western Que. to MN
s. to Gulf Coast states & e. KS Native Habitat:
Rich woods; wooded bottomlands; rocky banks & bluffs; limestone outcrops
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
Soil pH: Circumneutral (pH 6.8-7.2)
Soil Description: Rich, mesic to moist soils.
Conditions Comments: Tolerates seasonal flooding and limestone.
BenefitUse Ornamental: Contributes early spring color to the Southeastern woodland garden.
Use Wildlife: Consumed by White-footed Mouse.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Interesting Foliage: yes
Root Division , Seeds Description:
Can be easily multiplied by rootstock division when the plant is dormant. Be careful, as rhizomes are easily broken. Seeds should be sown on a moist, shaded seed bed immediately after collection. Expect the seedlings to flower
in 3-4 years. Seed Collection:
A long, slender pod
splits open 4-5 weeks after the bloom period. To catch the seeds, collect the pods when the seeds have turned dark brown and allow the pods to dry and split in a paper bag. Seeds lose viability quickly in storage. Commercially Avail:
A light, leafy winter cover is desirable.
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)
is a larval host and/or nectar source for:
National Wetland Indicator Status
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1
(Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here
for map of regions.
From the National Organizations Directory
According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is either on display or available from the following:
Delaware Nature Society
- Hockessin, DEMt. Cuba Center
- Hockessin, DE
Record Last Modified: 2013-09-09
Research By: TWC Staff