Trillium gracile J.D. Freeman
Slender trillium, Graceful trillium, Sabine River trillium, Sabine River wake-robin
Liliaceae (Lily Family)
USDA Symbol: TRGR6
This lovely trillium has a natural range that essentially follows the Sabine River bottom along the border of Texas and Louisiana, and it requires the conditions found in the pine forests characteristic of that region: loose, moist but well-drained, acidic soil, medium shade, and no disturbance. Its mottled green leaves and inconspicuous blooms appear briefly in spring before disappearing for the rest of the year. In their setting, these plants are quite decorative, but they take years to become established and decades to expand into a colony. Existing plants should be treasured, as they are a sign of undisturbed woodland.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Elliptic , Oblanceolate
Leaf Venation: Parallel
Leaf Pubescence: Glabrous
Leaf Margin: Entire
Leaf Apex: Acute , Obtuse
Leaf Base: Cuneate
Leaf Texture: Smooth
Size Notes: 8 to 12 inches high
Leaf: Variegated light green and dark green
Flower: Flowers 2 inches
Size Class: 0-1 ft.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Red , Yellow , Green , Purple
Bloom Time: Apr
Bloom Notes: Color maroon, turning yellow or yellow-green with age. Some forms with yellow or yellow-green blooms. Up close, flowers have the earthy smell of morels.
DistributionUSA: AR , LA , TX
Native Distribution: Extreme southwestern Arkansas down Sabine River bottom to southeast Texas
Native Habitat: Shaded pine forests
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8)
Soil Description: Moist, well-drained acid sands and loams, especially the kind favored by pine trees
Conditions Comments: Prefers the conditions of a pine forest floor.
BenefitUse Ornamental: A fine herb-layer colonizer for the woodland garden. Its presence signifies undisturbed woodland soil.
Fragrant Flowers: yes
Interesting Foliage: yes
PropagationPropagation Material: Seeds
Description: Fresh seed. Do not start in greenhouse; plant seed directly in soil.
Maintenance: If grown in its preferred habitat, requires no maintenance, only patience, as it takes years to establish itself and decades to form a colony.
Mr. Smarty Plants says
Pictures and sources for black trilliums
June 10, 2008
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From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE
BibliographyBibref 318 - Native Texas Plants: Landscaping Region by Region (2002) Wasowski, S. & A. Wasowski
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From the ArchiveWildflower Newsletter 1987 VOL. 4, NO.1 - One Million Bequest Announced, Lady Bird Johnson On Celebrating Four Years, Spri...
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Trillium gracile in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Trillium gracile in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Trillium gracile
MetadataRecord Modified: 2009-03-19
Research By: TWC Staff, GDG