Prosopis velutina Woot.
Fabaceae (Pea Family)
Synonym(s): Neltuma velutina, Prosopis articulata, Prosopis chilensis var. velutina, Prosopis juliflora, Prosopis juliflora var. articulata, Prosopis juliflora var. velutina
USDA Symbol: PRVE
Spiny tree with short, forking trunk, open, spreading crown of crooked branches, and finely hairy or velvety foliage, twigs, and pods. Under favorable conditions it sometimes grows as high as 30 feet, but in drier areas it is a spreading shrub with long, thick roots which people sometimes dig up for fuel. Leaves are alternate, deciduous, with long stems, made up of 12–20 leaflets about 2 inches long and 1/4 inch wide, which are again divided into smaller leaflets. All are smooth, dark green, and linear. The flower stem is 3 inches long or more, containing numerous cream-colored flowers that honeybees seem to prefer. The long, white stamens are numerous, turning yellow with age. The beans, up to 8 inches long, gradually turn yellow and mature in August and September. They contain about 25 percent sugar and are a valuable livestock food.
The medium-sized tree mesquite of central and southern Arizona, Velvet Mesquite reaches larger size than related species. The wood is used for fenceposts and novelties and is one of the best in the desert for fuel; even the large, deep taproots are grubbed up for that use. Southwestern Indians prepared meal and cakes from the sweet pods and livestock browse them, disseminating the seeds. Bees produce a fragrant honey from mesquites.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Retention: Deciduous
Leaf Arrangement: Alternate
Size Notes: Grows as high as 30 feet.
Size Class: 12-36 ft.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: White , Yellow
Bloom Time: May , Jun , Jul , Aug , Sep
DistributionUSA: AZ , CA , NM
Native Distribution: Extreme SW. New Mexico west to central Arizona and NW. Mexico; at 500-5500 (152-1676 m).
Native Habitat: Along washes and valleys and on slopes and mesas in desert, desert grassland, and occasionally with oaks.
BenefitUse Wildlife: Seed pods contain about 25 percent sugar and are a valuable livestock food.
Use Other: Hard wood is also used for fence posts and sometimes for railroad ties.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Interesting Foliage: yes
Value to Beneficial InsectsSpecial Value to Native Bees
Special Value to Honey Bees
Provides Nesting Materials/Structure for Native Bees
This information was provided by the Pollinator Program at The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.
Find Seed or Plants
Find seed sources for this species at the Native Seed Network.
National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Native Seed Network - Corvallis, OR
BibliographyBibref 995 - Native Landscaping from El Paso to L.A. (2000) Wasowski, S. and A. Wasowski
Bibref 248 - Texas Wildflowers: A Field Guide (1984) Loughmiller, C. & L. Loughmiller
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Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Prosopis velutina in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Prosopis velutina in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Prosopis velutina
MetadataRecord Modified: 2009-02-20
Research By: TWC Staff