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NPIN: Native Plant Database

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Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine)
Makin, Julie

Pinus strobus

Pinus strobus L.

Eastern white pine, Weymouth pine

Pinaceae (Pine Family)

Synonym(s): Strobus strobus

USDA Symbol: PIST

USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N), SPM (N)

Eastern white pine is a stately canopy tree, 75-100 ft. tall; sometimes much taller. Gracefully plume-like in outline, white pine is very distinctive when compared to other conifers. Its branches are horizontal and tiered. Tufts of light- to bluish-green needles are borne in feathery clusters of five only toward the ends of the twigs. Cones are 6-8 in. long. The largest northeastern conifer, a magnificent evergreen tree with straight trunk and crown of horizontal branches, 1 row added a year, becoming broad and irregular.

The largest conifer and formerly the most valuable tree of the Northeast, Eastern White Pine is used for construction, millwork, trim, and pulpwood. Younger trees and plantations have replaced the once seemingly inexhaustible lumber supply of virgin forests. The tall straight trunks were prized for ship masts in the colonial period. It is the state tree of Maine, the Pine Tree State; the pine cone and tassel are the states floral emblem. The seeds were introduced in England (where it is called Weymouth Pine) from Maine in 1605 by Captain George Weymouth of the British Navy.

 

Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Leaf Retention: Evergreen
Leaf Arrangement: Fascicled
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Linear
Breeding System: Flowers Unisexual , Monoecious
Fruit Type: Cone
Leaf: Dark Green
Fruit: Brown
Size Class: More than 100 ft.

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Red , Pink , Yellow , Green , Brown
Bloom Time: Apr , May

Distribution

USA: AR , CT , DC , DE , GA , IA , IL , IN , KY , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , NC , NH , NJ , NY , OH , PA , RI , SC , TN , VA , VT , WI , WV
Canada: NB , NL , NS , ON , PE , QC
Native Distribution: Nf. to Man., s. to PA, n.e. OH, n. IL & n.e. IA; mts. to GA; local in w. KY, w. TN & DE
Native Habitat: Upland, mesic sand or loam sites; north slopes; rocky stream banks

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Sun , Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry , Moist
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8)
CaCO3 Tolerance: None
Soil Description: Fertile, moist, well-drained soils.

Benefit

Use Wildlife: Attracts birds and mammals for food and shelter.
Use Other: White pine has been used in construction, interior and exterior finishing, furniture, cabinets and carvings. (Kershaw)
Attracts: Birds

Propagation

Description: Sow stratified seed outside in fall. It will be several years before the seedlings show any rapid growth.
Seed Collection: Not Available
Seed Treatment: Stratify seed for 60 days.
Commercially Avail: yes

Find Seed or Plants

View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.

National Wetland Indicator Status

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FACU FACU FACU FACU
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1 (Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here for map of regions.

From the National Suppliers Directory

According to the inventory provided by Associate Suppliers, this plant is available at the following locations:

Edge of the Woods Native Plant Nursery - Orefield, PA
American Native Nursery - Quakertown, PA
Toadshade Wildflower Farm - Frenchtown, NJ

From the National Organizations Directory

According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:

United States Botanic Garden - Washington, DC
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE

From the Archive

Wildflower Newsletter 1995 VOL. 12, NO.6 - Mission in Review, Fire and Landscape Ecology, The Little House, Essays on the B...

Additional resources

USDA: Find Pinus strobus in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Pinus strobus in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Pinus strobus

Metadata

Record Modified: 2013-06-27
Research By: TWC Staff

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