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Corylus cornuta

Corylus cornuta Marshall

Beaked hazelnut, Beaked filbert

Betulaceae (Birch Family)

Synonym(s):

USDA Symbol: COCO6

USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N), SPM (N)

A dense, mound-shaped, thicket-forming shrub, 4-8 ft. tall. Yellowish-brown catkins are showy in late winter and early spring. The female bloom is obscure. The husk that covers the nut is extended, forming a slender beak. Fall color varies from bright yellow to deep wine-red.

The Beaked Hazel is a member of the birch family (family Betulaceae) which includes trees, often large, and some shrubs including alders (Alnus), hornbeams (Carpinus), and hophornbeams (Ostrya), as well as birches (Betula). About 135 species worldwide. About 20 native and 1 naturalized tree species and 8 shrub species in North America.

 

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Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf: Green
Autumn Foliage: yes
Fruit: Brown
Size Class: 6-12 ft.

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Yellow , Green
Bloom Time: Mar , Apr , May , Jun

Distribution

USA: AL , CA , CO , CT , DE , GA , IA , ID , IL , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MS , MT , NC , ND , NH , NJ , NY , OH , OR , PA , RI , SC , SD , TN , VA , VT , WA , WI , WV , WY
Canada: AB , BC , MB , NB , NL , NS , ON , PE , QC , SK
Native Distribution: Nf. to B.C., s. to GA mts., MI, n.e. IA & c. CA
Native Habitat: Upland forests; thickets

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Sun , Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
Soil pH: Circumneutral (pH 6.8-7.2)
CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium
Soil Description: Various moist to dry soils.
Conditions Comments: Sometimes considered a more refined shrub than C. americana. Can be pruned anytime. Tends to sucker from the roots and must often be thinned out. No extensive disease or insect problems. The west coast variety is Corylus cornuta var. californica.

Benefit

Use Wildlife: The fruit is a smooth nut with a very hard shell.
The nuts are rich in protein and fat a favourite of red squirrels and chipmunks. Snowshoe hare browse heavily on young shoots during the winter. The nuts are a preferred food of ruffed grouse, pheasant, hairy woodpecker and blue jay. The winter buds and spring catkins are a valuable protein source for ruffed grouse and American woodcock. (Shrubs of Ontario)
Attracts: Birds , Butterflies
Larval Host: Early Hairstreak (Erora laeta)

Propagation

Description: Corylus spp. may be propagated by seed. Rooted pieces may be separated from the plant for increase.
Seed Collection: Not Available
Commercially Avail: yes

Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)

Corylus cornuta is a larval host and/or nectar source for:
Early Hairstreak
(Erora laeta)

Larval Host
Learn more at BAMONA

Find Seed or Plants

View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.

National Wetland Indicator Status

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FACU FACU UPL UPL FACU FACU
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1 (Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here for map of regions.

Additional resources

USDA: Find Corylus cornuta in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Corylus cornuta in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Corylus cornuta

Metadata

Record Last Modified: 2009-02-18
Research By: TWC Staff

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