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Abies balsamea (L.) P. Mill.
Balsam fir, Balsam
USDA Symbol: ABBA
USDA Native Status: Native to U.S.
The only fir native to the Northeast, with narrow, pointed, spirelike crown of spreading branches and aromatic foliage.
A major pulpwood species. Interior knotty pine paneling is a special product;
Canada balsam, an aromatic oleoresin obtained from swellings or resin blisters in the bark, is used for mounting microscopic specimens and for optical cement. Wood is used for pulp and paper.
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial Habit: Tree Leaf Complexity: Simple Leaf Shape:
Linear Breeding System:
, Monoecious Leaf:
Purple, Brown 2-3.5 in. Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow , Green , Purple , Brown
Bloom Time: Sep , Oct , Nov
CT , IA , IN , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , NH , NY , OH , PA , RI , VA , VT , WI , WV Canada: AB
, YT Native Distribution:
Lab. & Nf. to MN & s. Man., s. to VA & n.e. IA. In North on low, swampy ground to well-drained uplands; in South above 3600 ft. Native Habitat:
Woodland, Riparian, Swamp, Marsh USDA Native Status: L48(N), CAN(N),
Growing ConditionsWater Use:
Medium Light Requirement:
Sun , Part Shade , Shade Soil Moisture:
Moist Soil pH:
Acidic (pH<6.8) CaCO3 Tolerance:
Low Cold Tolerant:
Well-drained, acid, moist soils. Conditions Comments:
This slow-growing tree
loses its lower branches as it matures, but maintains its dense, spire-like habit throughout its life. It needs to be kept cool and moist during the growing season. It is troubled by spruce budworm, woolly aphid and several canker diseases and is heavily browsed by deer. It is very resistant to attack by gypsy moth. The soft foliage makes balsam a favorite Christmas tree.
A common Christmas tree
species. Christmas trees, wreaths, and balsam pillows utilize the aromatic foliage. Use Wildlife:
Songbirds and squirrels eat seed and deer browse foliage. Deer and moose browse the foliage in winter. Use Other:
Balsam has the fortunate property of refracting light to exactly the same extent that glass does so that the balsam matrix, the cover glass, and the microscope lenses become one optical system with the same refractive index. (Peattie) Fragrant Flowers:
Birds , Butterflies
Abies spp. are best propagated by means of seeds sown in early spring. In nature, Abies seeds often germinate on melting snow fields. Seed Collection:
Cone scales bear two seeds at the base. Mature seed has a large wing
and is ovoid to oblong. Seeds can be damaged easily. Seeds store best in a dry, cool environment. Seed Treatment:
A stratification period of 15-30 days in moist medium at 34-41 degrees is recommended. Commercially Avail:
From the National Suppliers Directory
According to the inventory provided by Associate Suppliers, this plant is available at the following locations:
Edge of the Woods Native Plant Nursery
- Orefield, PA
From the National Organizations Directory
According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is either on display or available from the following:
- Johnstown, PA
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Record Modified: 2012-10-20
Research By: DEW