Yellow trout-lily, American trout-lily, Dogtooth violet, Eastern trout-lily, Adder's tongue
Liliaceae (Lily Family)
A pair of brownish-mottled leaves sheath the base of a stalk that bears a solitary,
yellow inside, bronzy outside. This colony-forming perennial
sends up two, 3-6 in., elliptic,
maroon-mottled leaves and a slightly taller stalk bearing a single, nodding, yellow flower. Petals and sepals
are bent backwards exposing six brown stamens. Single-leaved, non-flowering plants also occur, either too young or too crowded to flower.
Recognized by its brown-mottled leaves, this is one of our most common spring ephemeral wildflowers, and it is found in sizable colonies. The common name (Dogtooth Violet) refers to the toothlike shape of the white underground bulb. The name Trout Lily (a more suitable name since the flower
is not a Violet) refers to the similarity between the leaf markings and those of the brown or brook trout. The White Dogtooth Violet (E. albidum
) has narrow, mottled leaves and white, bell-shaped flowers, often tinged with lavender on the outside. It is found from southern Ontario to Georgia, west to Kentucky, Missouri, and Oklahoma, and north to Minnesota. Minnesota Adders Tongue (E. propullans
), found only in Minnesota, has pink flowers and produces a small bulb
midway up the stem.
Image Gallery: 15 photo(s) available
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial Habit: Herb Leaf Complexity: Simple Flower:
Fruit: Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Mar , Apr , May
, DC Canada: NB
, QC Native Distribution:
N.B., s. Que & s. Ont., s. through mts. to n. GA
& to n.e. OK Native Habitat:
woodlands & openings
Growing ConditionsLight Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8)
Soil Description: Moist, rich soils.
Conditions Comments: Trout lily must be planted where it will receive ample sun in early spring. It makes an attractive seasonal ground cover. A leafy wintercover, left in place in spring, is desireable. Clumps of plants that include many leaves and few flowers should be divided.
BenefitConspicuous Flowers: yes