Bransford, W.D. and Dolphia
Baptisia alba (L.) Vent.
White wild indigo
Fabaceae (Pea Family)
This 2-4 ft., mound-shaped perennial
holds its white, pea-like flowers in erect clusters. Velvety, trifoliate
leaves turn from bluish-gray to black in the fall. A bushy perennial
with smooth leaves and white or cream-colored pea flowers in stiffly erect clusters; stem
covered with whitish bloom. Clusters of large, black seedpods often remain attached to the naked winter stems.
This showy legume,
long known as B. leucantha
but now as B. alba
, often stands out above surrounding prairie grasses. Many species of this genus
contain a blue dye that resembles indigo and becomes noticeable in autumn as the plants dry out and blacken. Large-bracted Wild Indigo (B. bracteata var. leucophaea
) has two large stipules
at the base of 3-parted leaves, giving the effect of five leaflets rather than three.
Image Gallery: 8 photo(s) available
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial Habit: Herb Leaf Arrangement: Alternate Leaf Complexity: Trifoliate Size Notes:
Normally 2 to 3 feet tall, but can reach 6 feet Leaf:
bright green to pale blue, black in fall Flower:
Flowers 1 inch in 6 to 9 inch spikes
Green or black up to 1 inch Size Class:
1-3 ft. , 3-6 ft.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: White
Bloom Time: Apr , May , Jun , Jul
Bloom Notes: Blooms earlier in southern parts of its range, later the farther north you go.
AL , AR , FL , GA , IL , IN , IA , KS , KY , LA , MD , MI , MN , MS , MO , NE , NY , NC , OH , OK , SC , TN , TX , VA , WI Native Distribution:
VA, OH, MI, MN & s.e. NE, s. to w. FL & e.TX Native Habitat:
Prairies; open woods; ravines USDA Native Status: L48(N)
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Sun
Soil Moisture: Moist , Dry
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8)
Heat Tolerant: yes
Soil Description: Rocky or sandy, acid soils. Tolerates clay.
Conditions Comments: Tolerates seasonal flooding
BenefitUse Ornamental: Used in gardens and grasslands.
Warning: This plant has been fatal to cows and can be irritating to humans if ingested. Sensitivity to a toxin varies with a personís age, weight, physical condition, and individual susceptibility. Children are most vulnerable because of their curiosity and small size. Toxicity can vary in a plant according to season, the plantís different parts, and its stage of growth; and plants can absorb toxic substances, such as herbicides, pesticides, and pollutants from the water, air, and soil.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Interesting Foliage: yes