The Tulip Tree Liriodendron tulipifera (Tuliptree) is a beautiful tree, and should do well in Florida. More information about the tree can be found at Floridata.com.
When I hear about newly planted trees losing their leaves, transplant shock comes to mind. In this case, the problems of a new transplant were probably increased by the beating it took from Debby.
I am going to give you four links to sources that have information about transplanting trees, preventing transplant shock, and dealing with transplant shock.
Two of these are from Northscaping.com
first year tree care
10 tips to minimize trans.shock
From Clemson University
newly planted trees
From the University of Kentucky
Another suggestion is to contact the folks at the Duval County office of IFAS Cooperative Extension.
IFAS Extension http://duval.ifas.ufl.edu/