En EspaÑol

Q. Who is Mr. Smarty Plants?

A: There are those who suspect Wildflower Center volunteers are the culpable and capable culprits. Yet, others think staff members play some, albeit small, role. You can torture us with your plant questions, but we will never reveal the Green Guru's secret identity.

Help us grow by giving to the Plant Database Fund or by becoming a member

Did you know you can access the Native Plant Information Network with your web-enabled smartphone?

Share

Ask Mr. Smarty Plants

Ask Mr. Smarty Plants is a free service provided by the staff and volunteers at the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center.

Search Smarty Plants
    
 
See a list of all Smarty Plants questions
Can't find the answer in our existing FAQs, submit a question to Mr. Smarty Plants.
Need help with plant identification, visit the plant identification page.
 
rate this answer
Not Yet Rated

Wednesday - February 07, 2007

From: Cleveland, OH
Region: Mid-Atlantic
Topic: Non-Natives
Title: Use of non-native Indian Mustard for reducing lead in soil
Answered by: Nan Hampton

QUESTION:

The EPA phytoremediation documents say lead contamination can be reduced with Brassica juncea:

"Successful Reduction of Lead Contamination. Phytoextraction was demonstrated at a site in Trenton New Jersey that had been used for the manufacture of lead acid batteries. Phytoextraction using Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) soil amendment reduced the average surface lead concentration by 13 percent in one growing season. The target soil concentration of 400 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) was achieved in approximately 72 percent of a 4,500 square-foot area. (Some of the reduction may be attributed to dilution as a result of tilling and spreading contaminants deeper into the soil column.)"

I don’t find it in your database of native plants. Is it native to Northeast Ohio? We have lots of lead contaminated land here. Maybe we should be planting mustard in our empty lots in this shrinking rust belt city… What do you think? No need for more exotic invasives…

ANSWER:

Indian Mustard, Brassica juncea, is not native to North America. It is an introduced species from central Asia and this is where it gets its "Indian" modifier. This is the cultivated plant that you can buy in your supermarket under the name of "mustard greens" and is a favorite crop in home vegetable gardens in the South.

Phytoremediation of soils with heavy metal contamination is a very active area of current research. The efficiency of uptake of contaminants by a wide variety of plants is under investigation. There are announcements of bioengineered transgenic plants with genes that significantly increase the amount of contaminants the plants can accumulate in their tissues:

Martinez, M. et al. An engineered plant that accumulates higher levels of heavy metals than Thlaspi caerulescens, with yields of 100 times more biomass in mine soils. Chemosphere, 2006 June, v. 64, issue 3, p. 478-485.

Gisbert, C. et al. A plant genetically modified that accumulates Pb (lead) is especially promising for phytoremediation. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Apr 4, 2003. v. 303 (2), p. 440-445.

To be a good candidate for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminants, a plant needs to be efficient in uptake of the metal, sequester the contaminant in tissues that are easily harvested, and produce a large biomass for harvesting. From our perspective at the Wildflower Center, it is also desirable for the plant, or plants, to be native plants. Neither Thlaspi caerulescens, mentioned in the title above, nor the transgenic plant, Nicotiana glauca, are plants native to North America. (The fact that one of these is a transgenic plant brings up another controversial issue which won't be addressed in this answer.) In Table 4.2. Selected Lead Accumulating Plants (Section 4. Phytoremediation of Lead) from Northwestern University's A Resouce Guide: The Phytoremediation of Lead in Urban, Residential Soils, three native plants are listed:

Short Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)
Seapink thrift (Armeria maritima)
Common Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

Two of these, Short Ragweed and Common Sunflower, are native to Ohio, although I wouldn't necessarily recommend planting large fields of allergy-inducing ragweed in your neighborhood. Another article (Grist, Ray H. et al. Toxic metal uptake by sunflower, switchgrass, and Alyssum. Journal of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science. AUG 2005, v. 79, no. 1, pp. 29-34) offers another native plant, Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a possibility, but concludes that the sunflower is more versatile than switchgrass or Alyssum (non-native).

Table 4.2. Selected Lead Accumulating Plants lists several cultivated garden plants—corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), rutabaga, turnip (Brassica napus), ornamental kale and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea)—that, although not native, are not considered to be invasives. However, they do warrant a caution—plants that are efficient in accumulating lead, or other heavy metals, from the soil should not be used as food plants if they are grown in an area that has soils with a high level of lead contamination.

 

More Non-Natives Questions

Replacing non-natives and kudzu in Spartanburg SC
July 12, 2009 - I would dearly love to cut down the red tips and leland cypress, as well as the 2 Savannah hollies and 15 ft cleyera which the kudzu has overrun along my property line, get rid of a chunk of lawn and ...
view the full question and answer

Non-native crapemyrtles changing color in Homer LA
June 23, 2009 - I have six natchez crape myrtles, 2 1/2 years old now. This year, one of them has started blooming in a lavender color. Have you ever heard of this?
view the full question and answer

Dying branches on non-native buddleias in Horseshoe Bend TX
September 19, 2010 - Our Black Knight buddleias are developing branches that die. The leaves just turn brown and the whole branch dies then another and finally the whole plant dies. Do you know what could be causing this...
view the full question and answer

Replacements for photinia from San Antonio
August 31, 2012 - i just read your response to someone regarding Red Tip shrubs. You just saved me thousands of dollars ! I was getting ready to order over 250 of these to line my 2.5 acre fence line. What shrub would ...
view the full question and answer

Non-native Boulevard Cypress Pom Pom trees in Princeton NJ
October 29, 2011 - I just had some landscaping done near my front door and front yard. I have two Boulevard Cypress B&B (4-5') Pom Pom. The pom poms are turning brown. What should I have been doing? I am watering them ...
view the full question and answer

Smarty Plants's Facebook profile Support the Wildflower Center by Donating Online or Becoming a Member today.

Mr. Smarty Plants wants you to be his Facebook friend. Click the Facebook icon to add yourself to Mr. Smarty Plants list of friends.
E-NEWSLETTER | BECOME A MEMBER | DONATE NOW | MEDIA | SITEMAP
© 2014 Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center