En EspaŅol

Q. Who is Mr. Smarty Plants?

A: There are those who suspect Wildflower Center volunteers are the culpable and capable culprits. Yet, others think staff members play some, albeit small, role. You can torture us with your plant questions, but we will never reveal the Green Guru's secret identity.

Help us grow by giving to the Plant Database Fund or by becoming a member

Did you know you can access the Native Plant Information Network with your web-enabled smartphone?

Share

Ask Mr. Smarty Plants

Ask Mr. Smarty Plants is a free service provided by the staff and volunteers at the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center.

Search Smarty Plants
    
 
See a list of all Smarty Plants questions
Can't find the answer in our existing FAQs, submit a question to Mr. Smarty Plants.
Need help with plant identification, visit the plant identification page.
 
rate this answer
4 ratings

Thursday - November 01, 2007

From: new zealand, Other
Region: Other
Topic: Propagation
Title: Growth process of plants
Answered by: Barbara Medford

QUESTION:

How does a plant grow?

ANSWER:

A plant grows in the same way as animals, including humans, grow--by cell division. A cell is a very tiny building block of living organisms, visible only in a microscope. A typical plant cell can be thought of as a large factory, capable of manufacturing thousands of different products from the raw materials of water, soil and air. The factory uses sunlight rather than electricity or oil as an energy source. Whenever increased productivity is needed, the cell simply builds an exact copy of itself, within a day or two. This incredibly sophisticated process is a chain of chemical reactions called metabolism. The individual cell is approximately 1/2000 of an inch square. The really cool thing is, these cells "know", from the very first cell, that they will divide and combine to make a specific living thing; perhaps a tiny wood violet or a giraffe, a giant redwood or Aunt Elsie. Electronic engineers are justifiably proud of the tiny chips they have invented and manufactured containing immense amounts of information, but Nature beat them to it by several million years!

So, to deal specifically with how plants grow by cell division, and forget about the giraffe and Aunt Elsie. Each cell is designed to function as an independent unit. As the plant grows and develops, the cells will act in concert, adapting to needs of the plant, lengthening and developing in parallel with the general vertical growth of the roots and stems. This is called "primary growth" and ensures that leaves are quickly elevated into sunlight and roots penetrate deeply into the soil. Secondary growth occurs as the need arises for thickening at the base of the plant, extending into the roots, for stability and support. And each time a cell divides, the exact genetic instructions exist in both divisions so that the plant continues to "remember" what it is supposed to grow up to be, and how to go about it.

Now, to jump ahead. Every living organism has a built-in instinctive requirement to make more organisms like itself. A plant will at some point bloom, the blooms will be pollinated and seeds will be created. In an annual like the bluebonnet, which must grow and reproduce quickly while conditions are favorable, emerging from the soil, blooming and setting seeds takes place in about 3 months. A larger perennial flowering plant or shrub may take a year or so to mature to seeding, while trees that will grow much larger could take several years. A plant called the Agave havardiana (Havard's century plant) will take 20 to 40 years to bloom, bloom once and magnificently, make seeds and then the plant dies.

However long or short a time, all plants will produce some sort of reproductive matter, usually seeds but it could be spores as are found in ferns. It's easier to illustrate the development of a plant from a seed. Seeds come in all sizes and shapes, from something that looks like a grain of dust to a fairly large pinto bean. The seeds have evolved over eons to survive the habitat in which they find themselves, and to be transported hopefully to a fertile spot for them to grow. Many, many more seeds are produced than ever manage to find a place of their own, many of those seeds are consumed by predators or fall where they cannot grow, like cement. And, of those who do find a place to sprout, there are more predators that love a tender, fresh sprout, and the tiny plants can also be damaged by drought or drowning or some toxin in the earth or air. The wonder is that any of them survive, but adaptation to conditions determines whether a species will continue to exist or disappear.

Finally, the seed has found a good piece of dirt to call its own. It may have to wait years until there is moisture in the soil, the air is warming to a temperature at which growth is possible, and the seed can come out of dormancy and get a new plant started. We found a California State University website with illustrations of "How Seeds Germinate" that will help understand this incredible transformation. And then the whole process begins again, to grow stems and leaves and branches, to flower and be pollinated and make seeds to cast out for reproduction. And that's how a plant grows.

 

More Propagation Questions

Failure to bloom of Turk's cap in Midland TX
September 08, 2009 - My turk's cap won't make flowers. It has daily watering via irrigation system, and soft amended soil. The plant is beautiful and thriving, but no flowers. What should I do?
view the full question and answer

Care of recently propagated Century Plant from Litchfield Park AZ
April 24, 2011 - To germinate some century plant seeds I put them in dirt and put the pot in a tray of water. Now, I have 3 sprouts about an inch tall and they came up about an inch apart. Question is, how should I w...
view the full question and answer

Century Plant
April 20, 2013 - I have a century plant that has just begun to bloom. I have a transplanted a few pups, successfully. I am wondering how I am to go about removing the mother plant once it blooms and dies. I'm reading...
view the full question and answer

Transplanting a Texas redbud sapling
July 27, 2008 - I've just discovered a Texas red bud sapling (baby tree)that decided to grow next to our fire pit. Although there's no reason for us to sit around the campfire in 100 degree weather, I would like to...
view the full question and answer

Assuring berries on Viburnum dentatum
October 27, 2008 - I just purchased 2 blue muffin viburnum bushes-I live in Kansas-How many years will it be before they get berries? They are full size(3-4 ft) Do I need to trim them down for winter or just mulch the...
view the full question and answer

Smarty Plants's Facebook profile Support the Wildflower Center by Donating Online or Becoming a Member today.

Mr. Smarty Plants wants you to be his Facebook friend. Click the Facebook icon to add yourself to Mr. Smarty Plants list of friends.
E-NEWSLETTER | BECOME A MEMBER | DONATE NOW | MEDIA | SITEMAP
© 2014 Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center