Blackland Prairies

The Blackland Prairies area intermingles with the Post Oak Savannah in the southeast and has divisions known as the San Antonio and Fayette Prairies. This rolling and well-dissected prairie represents the southern extension of the true prairie that occurs from Texas to Canada. The upland blacklands are dark, calcareous shrink-swell clayey soils, changing gradually with depth to light marls or chalks. Bottomland soils are generally reddish brown to dark gray, slightly acid to calcareous, loamy to clayey and alluvial. The soils are inherently productive and fertile, but many have lost productivity through erosion and continuous cropping.


Thumb Species Characteristics

Abronia fragrans
Fragrant verbena, Sand verbena, Snowball, Snowball sand verbena, Sweet sand-verbena

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Abutilon fruticosum
Indian mallow, Texas Indian mallow

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Acer negundo
Box elder, Box elder maple, Ash-leaved maple, Ashleaf maple, Red River maple, Fresno de guajuco

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun
Water: Moist

Achillea millefolium
Common yarrow, Western yarrow, Yarrow, Milfoil

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Adiantum capillus-veneris
Southern maidenhair fern, Common maidenhair fern, Maidenhair fern, Venus hair fern

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Fern
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Aesculus glabra var. arguta
Ohio buckeye, White buckeye, Texas buckeye

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Aesculus pavia var. flavescens
Texas yellow buckeye, Yellow woolly buckeye, Pale buckeye, Plateau yellow buckeye

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub, Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Aesculus pavia var. pavia
Scarlet buckeye, Red buckeye, Southern buckeye, Firecracker plant

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub, Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Allium canadense var. canadense
Canada onion, Meadow garlic, Wild onion

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Allium canadense var. mobilense
Meadow garlic, Wild onion

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Allium coryi
Yellow-flowered onion, Yellowflower onion

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Allium drummondii
Drummond's onion, Wild Garlic, Drummond wild onion

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Alophia drummondii
Propeller flower, Purple pleat-leaf, Pinewoods lily, Prairie iris, Pleatleaf iris

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Aloysia gratissima
Whitebrush, Bee-brush, White-brush, Common bee-brush, Beebrush, Privet lippia

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Amorpha fruticosa
Indigo bush, False indigo bush, False indigo, Desert false indigo

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Ampelopsis cordata
Heartleaf peppervine, Heart-leaf ampelopsis

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Amsonia ciliata
Fringed bluestar, Bluestar, Texas bluestar

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Amsonia illustris
Ozark bluestar, Showy blue-star, Missouri blue star, Swamp bluestar

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Andropogon gerardii
Big bluestem, Tall bluestem, Turkeyfoot

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Andropogon glomeratus
Bushy bluestem, Brushy bluestem

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun
Water: Wet, Moist

Andropogon ternarius
Splitbeard bluestem

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Andropogon virginicus
Broomsedge, Broomsedge bluestem, Yellowsedge bluestem, Whiskey grass, Popotillo pajon

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Aphanostephus skirrhobasis
Lazy daisy, Arkansas lazy daisy, Arkansas doze-daisy

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Aristolochia serpentaria
Virginia snakeroot, Virginia dutchmanspipe

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Shade
Water: Dry

Aristolochia tomentosa
Woolly Dutchman's pipe, Common Dutchman's pipe

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Asplenium platyneuron
Ebony spleenwort

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Fern
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Astragalus crassicarpus
Groundplum milkvetch, Ground plum

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Baccharis neglecta
False Willow, Jara dulce, Poverty Weed, Roosevelt Weed

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Bothriochloa saccharoides
Silver bluestem, Longspike silver bluestem

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Bouteloua curtipendula
Sideoats grama, Banderilla, Banderita, Navajita

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Bouteloua dactyloides
Buffalograss, Buffalo grass

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Bouteloua hirsuta
Hairy grama

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Bouteloua rigidiseta
Texas grama

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Callirhoe involucrata
Winecup, Purple poppy mallow

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Calylophus berlandieri ssp. pinifolius
Berlandier's sundrops, Square-bud primrose, Sundrops, Square-bud day-primrose

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Calylophus hartwegii
Hartweg's sundrops, Western Primrose

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Camassia scilloides
Atlantic camas, Wild hyacinth

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Campsis radicans
Trumpet creeper, Trumpet vine, Common trumpet creeper, Cow vine, Foxglove vine, Hellvine, Devil's shoestring

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Sun
Water: Moist, Dry

Carya illinoinensis
Pecan

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun
Water: Moist

Carya texana
Black hickory, Buckley hickory, Pignut hickory

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Castilleja indivisa
Texas Indian Paintbrush, Entireleaf Indian Paintbrush, Texas Paintbrush, Indian Paintbrush, Scarlet Paintbrush

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Castilleja purpurea
Prairie paintbrush, Downy Indian paintbrush, Purple paintbrush, Lemon paintbrush, Purple painted cup

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Ceanothus americanus
New Jersey tea, Redroot

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Celtis laevigata
Sugar hackberry, Texas sugarberry, Sugarberry, Southern hackberry, Lowland hackberry, Hackberry, Palo blanco

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Centaurea americana
American basket-flower, American star-thistle, Basket-Flower, Star thistle, Shaving brush

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Common buttonbush, Buttonbush, Button willow

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Cercis canadensis var. canadensis
Eastern redbud

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Cercis canadensis var. texensis
Texas redbud

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Chamaecrista fasciculata
Partridge pea, Sleepingplant, Sensitive plant

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Chloris virgata
Feather fingergrass, Showy chloris

Duration: Annual
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Cirsium texanum
Texas thistle

Duration: Biennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Cladium mariscus ssp. jamaicense
Jamaica swamp sawgrass, Jamaican Saw-grass, Saw-grass

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Clematis crispa
Swamp Leatherflower, Curly Clematis, Blue-jasmine, Curlflower, Curly Virgin's Bower, Marsh Clematis

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Clematis drummondii
Old man's beard, Drummond's clematis, Texas virgin's bower, Goat's beard

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Clematis pitcheri
Purple Leatherflower, Purple Clematis, Leatherflower, Bluebill, Bellflower Clematis, Pitcher's Clematis

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Cocculus carolinus
Carolina snailseed, Carolina coralbead, Carolina moonseed, Red berried moonseed, Carolina red berried moonseed

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Cooperia drummondii
Evening rain lily, Evening star rain lily

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Cooperia pedunculata
Hill Country rain lily, Prairie lily, Rain lily, Flor de mayo

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Moist

Coreopsis lanceolata
Lanceleaf coreopsis, Lance-leaved coreopsis, Lanceleaf tickseed, Sand coreopsis

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Coreopsis tinctoria
Plains coreopsis, Golden tickseed, Goldenwave, Coreopsis, Calliopsis

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Cornus drummondii
Roughleaf dogwood, Drummond's dogwood, Rough-leaf dogwood

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Cornus florida
Flowering dogwood, Virginia dogwood, Florida dogwood, White cornel, Arrowwood, American boxwood, False box, St. Peter's crown, Corona de san pedro

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Crataegus crus-galli
Cockspur hawthorn, Cockspur thorn, Newcastle hawthorn, Newcastle thorn, Hog apple

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Crataegus reverchonii
Reverchon's hawthorn, Reverchon hawthorn

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Crataegus viridis
Green hawthorn, Southern hawthorn

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Wet

Dalea frutescens
Black dalea, Black prairie clover

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Datura wrightii
Jimsonweed, Sacred Thorn Apple, Thorn apple, Angel Trumpet, Sacred datura

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Delphinium carolinianum
Prairie Larkspur, Carolina Larkspur, Blue Larkspur

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Delphinium carolinianum ssp. vimineum
Carolina larkspur, Prairie larkspur

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Desmanthus illinoensis
Illinois bundleflower, Bundleflower, Prairie bundle flower, Prickleweed, Illinois Desmanthus, Prairie mimosa

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun
Water: Moist

Digitaria californica
Arizona cottontop, California cottontop, California crab grass, Cottontop

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Diospyros virginiana
Common persimmon, Eastern persimmon, Possumwood, Date plum, Winter plum, Jove's fruit

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Dracopis amplexicaulis
Clasping coneflower, Clasping-leaf coneflower

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Echinacea angustifolia
Black Samson, Black Samson echinacea, Narrow-leaf coneflower

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Echinacea purpurea
Eastern purple coneflower, Purple coneflower

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Ehretia anacua
Anacua, Sugarberry Anacua, Anaqua, Anacahuita, Knockaway, Knackaway, Sandpaper tree, Manzanita, Manzanillo, Tlalahuacate

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Elymus canadensis
Canada wild rye, Canadian wildrye, Prairie wildrye, Nodding wildrye

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Epipactis gigantea
Stream orchid, Chatterbox orchid, Giant hellebore

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Equisetum hyemale var. affine
Scouringrush horsetail

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Wet

Eragrostis intermedia
Plains lovegrass

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Eragrostis spectabilis
Purple lovegrass, Purple love grass, Purple plains lovegrass, Tumblegrass, Petticoat climber

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun
Water: Moist

Eriochloa sericea
Texas cupgrass

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Eriogonum annuum
Annual buckwheat, Wild Buckwheat

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Eriogonum multiflorum
Wild buckwheat, Heartsepal buckwheat, Heart-sepal wild buckwheat

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Erioneuron pilosum
Hairy Woollygrass, Hairy Tridens

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Eryngium leavenworthii
Leavenworth's eryngo, Eryngo, False purple thistle

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Eryngium yuccifolium
Rattlesnake master, Button eryngo, Button snakeroot, Beargrass, Bear's grass

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Moist

Erythrina herbacea
Coralbean, Cherokee bean, Red cardinal

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Eupatorium serotinum
Lateflowering thoroughwort, White boneset, Late boneset, Late-flowering boneset

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Euphorbia cyathophora
Wild Poinsettia, Poinsettia, Fire on the Mountain

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Moist

Euphorbia marginata
Snow on the mountain, Snow-on-the-mountain

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Forestiera pubescens var. pubescens
Stretchberry, Elbowbush, Stretch-berry, Downy forestiera, Desert olive, Elbow-bush

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Fraxinus americana
White ash, American ash, Cane ash, Smallseed white ash, Biltmore white ash, Biltmore ash

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Fraxinus pennsylvanica
Green ash, Red ash, Swamp ash, River ash, Water ash, Darlington ash

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist, Dry

Gaillardia pulchella
Indian Blanket, Firewheel, Girasol rojo

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Gaillardia suavis
Pincushion daisy, Fragrant gaillardia, Rayless gaillardia, Perfumeballs

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Gaura lindheimeri
Lindheimer's beeblossom, White gaura, Butterfly gaura

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Geum canadense
White avens

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Glandularia bipinnatifida var. bipinnatifida
Prairie verbena, Purple prairie verbena, Dakota mock vervain, Dakota vervain

Duration: Annual, Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Glandularia canadensis
Rose vervain, Sweet william, Rose mock vervain

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Gleditsia triacanthos
Honey locust, Common honey locust, Thorny common honey locust, Honey shucks locust, Sweet locust, Thorny locust, Honey shucks, Sweet bean tree

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Hamamelis virginiana
Witch hazel, American witch hazel, Common witch hazel, Winterbloom

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Helenium amarum
Yellow Sneezeweed, Bitterweed, Yellow bitterweed, Yellowdicks, Slender-leaved sneezeweed, Fine-leaved sneezweed, Yellow dog-fennel

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Helianthus maximiliani
Maximilian sunflower, Max sunflower

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Moist, Dry

Heliotropium curassavicum
Salt heliotrope, Seaside heliotrope, Quail plant, Cola de mico, Cola de gama

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Hibiscus laevis
Halberdleaf rosemallow, Halberdleaf hibiscus, Scarlet rose mallow, Halberd-leaved hibiscus, Halberd-leaved rose-mallow

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Hilaria belangeri var. belangeri
Curly-mesquite

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Hymenocallis liriosme
Texas Spiderlily, Spring Spiderlily, Spiderlily, Louisiana Spiderlily, Western Marsh Spiderlily

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Hymenopappus artemisiifolius
Old plainsman, Oldplainsman, Woolly-white

Duration: Biennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Ibervillea lindheimeri
Balsam Gourd, Lindheimer's Globeberry, Globe Berry, Snake-apple, Balsam-apple

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Sun
Water: Moist

Ilex decidua
Possumhaw, Possumhaw holly, Deciduous holly, Meadow holly, Prairie holly, Swamp holly, Welk holly, Deciduous yaupon, Bearberry, Winterberry

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Ilex opaca
American holly, White holly, Prickly holly, Evergreen holly, Christmas holly, Yule holly

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Dry

Ilex vomitoria
Yaupon, Yaupon Holly, Cassina

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub, Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Ipomopsis rubra
Standing cypress, Texas plume, Red Texas star, Red gilia

Duration: Biennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Juglans nigra
Black walnut, Eastern black walnut, American black walnut

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Justicia americana
American water-willow, Water-willow

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Liatris elegans
Pink-scale blazing star, Pink-scale gayfeather, Pink-scale liatris

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Liatris pycnostachya
Prairie blazing star, Prairie gayfeather, Prairie liatris, Kansas blazing star, Kansas gayfeather, Kansas liatris, Cat-tail blazing star, Cat-tail gayfeather, Cat-tail liatris, Hairy button-snakeroot

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Moist, Dry

Lindera benzoin
Northern spicebush, Spicebush, Wild allspice

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist, Dry

Lindheimera texana
Texas Yellowstar, Texas Star, Texas Yellow-star, Lindheimer daisy

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Linum berlandieri var. berlandieri
Berlandier's yellow flax, Yellow Flax, Stiff-stem flax

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Linum hudsonioides
Hudson Flax, Texas flax, Yellow Flax

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Liquidambar styraciflua
Sweetgum, American sweetgum, Red gum, White gum, Star-leaved gum, Starleaf gum, Alligator tree, Satin walnut, Bilsted, Liquidambar

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Lithospermum incisum
Golden Puccoon, Fringed Puccoon, Narrowleaf Puccoon, Narrow-leaved Puccoon, Puccoon, Narrowleaf Gromwell, Fringed Gromwell, Narrowleaf Stoneseed

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Lobelia cardinalis
Cardinal flower

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Lonicera albiflora
Western white honeysuckle, White shrub honeysuckle, White bush honeysuckle, White limestone honeysuckle, Texas honeysuckle, White honeysuckle

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Lonicera sempervirens
Coral honeysuckle, Trumpet honeysuckle, Woodbine