Gulf Marshes and Prairies

The Gulf Marshes, covering approximately 500,000 acres, are on a narrow strip of lowlands adjacent to the coast and the barrier islands (e.g., Padre Island), which extend from Mexico to Louisiana. The Gulf Prairies, about 9 million acres, include the nearly flat plain extending 30 to 80 miles inland from the Gulf Marshes. The Gulf Marshes are a low, wet, marshy coastal area, commonly covered with saline water, and range from sea level to a few feet in elevation. The Gulf Prairies are nearly level and virtually undissected plains having slow surface drainage and elevations from sea level to 250 feet. Soils of the Gulf Marshes are dark, poorly drained sandy loams and clays, and light neutral sands, typically showing little textural change with depth. The loamy and clayey soils are commonly saline and sodic. Prairie soils are dark, neutral to slightly acid clay loams and clays in the northeastern parts. Further south in the subhumid Coastal Bend, the soils are less acidic. A narrow band of light acid sands and darker loamy to clayey soils stretches along the coast. Inland from the dark clayey soils is a narrow belt of lighter acid fine sandy loam soils with gray to brown, and red mottled subsoils. Soils of the river bottomlands and broad deltaic plains are reddish brown to dark gray, slightly acid to calcareous, loamy to clayey alluvial.


Scientific Name Common Name Duration Habit Sun Water
Abronia fragrans Fragrant verbena, Sand verbena, Snowball, Snowball sand verbena, Sweet sand-verbena Perennial Herb Part-shade Dry
Acacia farnesiana Huisache, Texas huisache, Sweet acacia, Perfume acacia, Mealy acacia, Mealy wattle, Cassie Perennial Tree Sun Dry
Acer barbatum Southern sugar maple, Florida maple, Caddo maple, Rock maple Perennial Tree Part-shade Dry
Acer negundo Box elder, Box elder maple, Ash-leaved maple, Ashleaf maple, Red River maple, Fresno de guajuco Perennial Tree Sun Moist
Acer rubrum var. drummondii Drummond's maple, Drummond red maple, Swamp maple Perennial Tree Part-shade Wet, Moist
Achillea millefolium Common yarrow, Western yarrow, Yarrow, Milfoil Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Dry
Adiantum capillus-veneris Southern maidenhair fern, Common maidenhair fern, Maidenhair fern, Venus hair fern Perennial Fern Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Aesculus pavia var. flavescens Texas yellow buckeye, Yellow woolly buckeye, Pale buckeye, Plateau yellow buckeye Perennial Shrub, Tree Part-shade Moist
Aesculus pavia var. pavia Scarlet buckeye, Red buckeye, Southern buckeye, Firecracker plant Perennial Shrub, Tree Part-shade Moist, Dry
Allium canadense var. canadense Canada onion, Meadow garlic, Wild onion Perennial Herb Part-shade Dry
Allium canadense var. mobilense Meadow garlic, Wild onion Perennial Herb Part-shade Dry
Allium coryi Yellow-flowered onion, Yellowflower onion Perennial Herb Part-shade Dry
Allium drummondii Drummond's onion, Wild Garlic, Drummond wild onion Perennial Herb Sun Dry
Alophia drummondii Propeller flower, Purple pleat-leaf, Pinewoods lily, Prairie iris, Pleatleaf iris Perennial Herb Part-shade Dry
Aloysia gratissima Whitebrush, Bee-brush, White-brush, Common bee-brush, Beebrush, Privet lippia Perennial Shrub Sun, Part-shade Moist
Amblyolepis setigera Huisache Daisy, Butterfly Daisy, Honey Daisy Annual Herb Part-shade Dry
Amorpha fruticosa Indigo bush, False indigo bush, False indigo, Desert false indigo Perennial Shrub Sun, Part-shade Moist
Ampelopsis cordata Heartleaf peppervine, Heart-leaf ampelopsis Perennial Vine Part-shade Dry
Amsonia illustris Ozark bluestar, Showy blue-star, Missouri blue star, Swamp bluestar Perennial Herb Part-shade Moist
Amyris texana Chapotillo, Texas torchwood Perennial Shrub Part-shade Dry
Andropogon gerardii Big bluestem, Tall bluestem, Turkeyfoot Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun, Part-shade Moist
Andropogon glomeratus Bushy bluestem, Brushy bluestem Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun Wet, Moist
Andropogon ternarius Splitbeard bluestem Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun, Part-shade Dry
Andropogon virginicus Broomsedge, Broomsedge bluestem, Yellowsedge bluestem, Whiskey grass, Popotillo pajon Perennial Grass/Grass-like Part-shade Moist
Aphanostephus skirrhobasis Lazy daisy, Arkansas lazy daisy, Arkansas doze-daisy Annual Herb Sun Dry
Argemone mexicana Mexican prickly poppy, Mexican prickly poppy, Yellow prickly poppy Annual Herb Sun Dry
Aristolochia serpentaria Virginia snakeroot, Virginia dutchmanspipe Perennial Herb Shade Dry
Aristolochia tomentosa Woolly Dutchman's pipe, Common Dutchman's pipe Perennial Vine Part-shade Moist
Asimina parviflora Smallflower pawpaw, Small-flower pawpaw, Dwarf pawpaw Perennial Shrub Part-shade
Asimina triloba Pawpaw, Common pawpaw, Custard apple, Indian banana, Wild banana Perennial Tree Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist
Asplenium platyneuron Ebony spleenwort Perennial Fern Shade, Part-shade Moist
Athyrium filix-femina ssp. asplenioides Southern lady fern Perennial Fern Part-shade