Toadshade Wildflower Farm

Toadshade Wildflower Farm specializes in nursery grown and propagated perennial plants native to Northeastern America. Our mission is to 1) provide native, perennial, propagated wildflower plants, 2) identify the plants clearly by common and scientific name, 3) clearly summarize the native range of the plants, and 4) to encourage increased plantings of native plant species within their native range.


Scientific Name Common Name Duration Habit Sun Water
Acer negundo Box elder, Box elder maple, Ash-leaved maple, Ashleaf maple, Red River maple, Fresno de guajuco Perennial Tree Sun Moist
Acer saccharum Sugar maple, Northern sugar maple Perennial Tree Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Achillea millefolium Common yarrow, Western yarrow, Yarrow, Milfoil Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Dry
Agastache nepetoides Yellow giant hyssop Perennial Subshrub Sun, Part-shade
Agastache scrophulariifolia Purple giant hyssop, Purple giant-hyssop Perennial Herb Sun, Shade Moist
Ageratina altissima White snakeroot Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Agrimonia striata Roadside agrimony Perennial Herb Part-shade
Allium cernuum Nodding onion Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Amsonia hubrichtii Hubricht's bluestar Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade
Andropogon gerardii Big bluestem, Tall bluestem, Turkeyfoot Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun, Part-shade Moist
Andropogon virginicus Broomsedge, Broomsedge bluestem, Yellowsedge bluestem, Whiskey grass, Popotillo pajon Perennial Grass/Grass-like Part-shade Moist
Antennaria plantaginifolia Woman's Tobacco, Ladies' Tobacco, Everlasting, Mouse Ear, Plantain-leaf Pussytoes Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Dry
Apocynum cannabinum Indian hemp, Prairie dogbane, Hemp dogbane, Dogbane Perennial Herb Part-shade Moist
Aquilegia canadensis Eastern red columbine, Wild red columbine Perennial Herb Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Arisaema dracontium Green dragon, Dragonroot, Greendragon Perennial Herb Sun, Shade Moist
Arisaema triphyllum Jack in the pulpit, Indian jack in the pulpit, Jack-in-the-pulpit Perennial Herb Sun, Shade Wet, Moist
Aruncus dioicus Bride's feathers, Goat's beard Perennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Asclepias incarnata Swamp milkweed, Pink Milkweed Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Asclepias purpurascens Purple milkweed Perennial Herb Sun Dry
Asclepias syriaca Common milkweed Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Asclepias tuberosa Butterflyweed, Butterfly milkweed, Orange milkweed, Pleurisy root, Chigger flower Perennial Herb Sun Moist, Dry
Baptisia australis Blue wild indigo, Wild blue indigo, Blue false indigo Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Betula lenta Sweet birch, Cherry birch, Black birch, Mahogany birch Perennial Tree Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Betula populifolia Gray birch, White birch, Aspen-leaved birch Perennial Tree Sun, Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist, Dry
Bigelowia nuttallii Nuttall's rayless goldenrod
Boltonia asteroides Boltonia, White doll's daisy Perennial Herb Sun Moist, Dry
Caltha palustris Yellow marsh marigold, Cowslip Perennial Herb Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Campsis radicans Trumpet creeper, Trumpet vine, Common trumpet creeper, Cow vine, Foxglove vine, Hellvine, Devil's shoestring Perennial Vine Sun Moist, Dry
Carex appalachica Appalachian sedge Shade, Part-shade
Carex grayi Gray's sedge Perennial Grass/Grass-like Part-shade
Carex gynandra Nodding sedge Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist
Carex lupuliformis False hop sedge Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun Wet
Carex lupulina Hop sedge Perennial Grass/Grass-like Part-shade
Carex lurida Shallow sedge, Sallow sedge, Lurid sedge Perennial Grass/Grass-like Part-shade Wet
Carex pensylvanica Pennsylvania sedge Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun, Shade, Part-shade Dry
Carex rosea Rosy sedge Perennial Grass/Grass-like Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Carex squarrosa Squarrose Sedge, Narrowleaf Cattail Sedge Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun, Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Carpinus caroliniana American hornbeam, Blue beech, Water beech, Musclewood, Ironwood Perennial Tree Shade, Part-shade Moist
Ceanothus americanus New Jersey tea, Redroot Perennial Shrub Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Celtis occidentalis Common hackberry, Northern hackberry, American hackberry, Nettle tree, Beaverwood, False elm Perennial Tree Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Cephalanthus occidentalis Common buttonbush, Buttonbush, Button willow Perennial Shrub Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Cerastium arvense Field chickweed Perennial Herb Sun Dry
Cercis canadensis Eastern redbud, Redbud, Duraznillo Perennial Tree Shade, Part-shade Moist
Chasmanthium latifolium Inland sea oats, Indian wood oats, Wild oats, River oats, Flathead oats, Upland Oats, Upland Sea Oats Perennial Grass/Grass-like Shade, Part-shade Moist
Chelone glabra White turtlehead Perennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Cirsium discolor Field thistle Biennial Herb Sun Dry
Clematis virginiana Devil's darning needles, Virgin's Bower, Old Man's Beard Perennial Vine Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Clethra alnifolia Coastal pepperbush, Coastal sweet pepperbush, Coastal sweet pepper, Alderleaf pepperbush, Alderleaf clethra, Clethra, Summer sweet Perennial Shrub Sun, Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Clinopodium vulgare Wild basil Perennial Herb
Collinsonia canadensis Citronella horsebalm, Richweed, Stoneroot Perennial Herb Part-shade
Conoclinium coelestinum Blue mistflower, Wild ageratum, Blue boneset, Mistflower Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Moist
Coreopsis grandiflora Largeflower tickseed, Large-flower tickseed, Common coreopsis Perennial Herb Part-shade
Coreopsis tinctoria Plains coreopsis, Golden tickseed, Goldenwave, Coreopsis, Calliopsis Annual Herb Sun, Part-shade Moist
Cornus amomum Silky dogwood, Red willow, Silky cornel Perennial Shrub Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Cornus florida Flowering dogwood, Virginia dogwood, Florida dogwood, White cornel, Arrowwood, American boxwood, False box, St. Peter's crown, Corona de san pedro Perennial Tree Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Cornus racemosa Gray dogwood Perennial Shrub Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist
Cornus sericea Red osier dogwood, Red osier, Red-twig dogwood Perennial Shrub Part-shade Moist
Deschampsia cespitosa Tufted hairgrass, Tufted hair grass Perennial Grass/Grass-like Part-shade Wet
Dichanthelium clandestinum Deer-tongue, Deertongue Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun Wet
Dioscorea quaternata Fourleaf yam
Dioscorea villosa Wild yam Perennial Vine
Echinacea purpurea Eastern purple coneflower, Purple coneflower Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Dry
Eleocharis obtusa Blunt spikerush Annual Grass/Grass-like Sun
Elephantopus carolinianus Carolina elephantsfoot Perennial Herb
Elymus canadensis Canada wild rye, Canadian wildrye, Prairie wildrye, Nodding wildrye Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun, Part-shade Moist
Elymus hystrix Eastern bottlebrush grass, Bottlebrush Grass Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Elymus villosus Hairy wildrye Perennial Grass/Grass-like
Equisetum hyemale Scouring-rush horsetail, Horsetail, Scouring rush, Canuela Perennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Eragrostis spectabilis Purple lovegrass, Purple love grass, Purple plains lovegrass, Tumblegrass, Petticoat climber Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun Moist
Eryngium yuccifolium Rattlesnake master, Button eryngo, Button snakeroot, Beargrass, Bear's grass Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Eupatoriadelphus maculatus var. maculatus Spotted trumpetweed, Spotted joe-pye-weed Perennial Herb Part-shade Wet
Eupatorium hyssopifolium Hyssopleaf thoroughwort, Hyssop-leaf Boneset Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Eupatorium perfoliatum Common boneset Perennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Eupatorium serotinum Lateflowering thoroughwort, White boneset, Late boneset, Late-flowering boneset Perennial Herb Part-shade Moist
Eurybia divaricata White wood aster Perennial Herb Shade, Part-shade Dry
Euthamia graminifolia Flat-top goldentop, Grass-leaved goldenrod Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Eutrochium fistulosum Joe-pye Weed, Trumpetweed, Queen of the Meadow, Hollow Joe-pye Weed Perennial Herb Sun Moist, Dry
Eutrochium maculatum Spotted Joe-Pye Weed Perennial Herb
Fragaria virginiana Virginia strawberry, Wild strawberry Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Dry
Fraxinus americana White ash, American ash, Cane ash, Smallseed white ash, Biltmore white ash, Biltmore ash Perennial Tree Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Gentiana clausa Bottle gentian, Blind gentian Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Moist
Geranium maculatum Spotted geranium, Wild geranium, Cranesbill Perennial Herb Shade, Part-shade Moist
Geum aleppicum Yellow avens Perennial Herb Shade Moist
Geum canadense White avens Perennial Herb Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Gillenia stipulata American ipecac
Hackelia virginiana Beggarslice, Beggar's-lice, Stickseed, Sticktight, Wild Comfrey, Virginia Stickseed
Helenium autumnale Common sneezeweed, Fall sneezeweed, Autumn sneezeweed Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Helianthus decapetalus Thinleaf sunflower, Ten-petaled sunflower, Thin-leaved sunflower, Pale sunflower Perennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist
Helianthus mollis Ashy sunflower, Downy sunflower Perennial Herb
Heliopsis helianthoides Smooth oxeye, Oxeye sunflower, False sunflower Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Heuchera villosa Hairy alumroot Perennial Herb Shade Moist
Hibiscus laevis Halberdleaf rosemallow, Halberdleaf hibiscus, Scarlet rose mallow, Halberd-leaved hibiscus, Halberd-leaved rose-mallow Perennial Shrub Sun, Part-shade Moist
Hieracium kalmii Kalm's hawkweed Perennial Herb
Hydrangea arborescens Wild hydrangea, Sevenbark Perennial Shrub Part-shade Moist
Hypericum ascyron Great St. John's-wort, Giant St. John's-wort Perennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Hypericum mutilum Dwarf St. John's-wort Annual Herb Part-shade
Hypericum punctatum Spotted St. John's-wort Perennial Herb Part-shade
Iris versicolor Harlequin blueflag, Northern blue flag, Large blue iris Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Juglans nigra Black walnut, Eastern black walnut, American black walnut Perennial Tree Sun, Part-shade Moist
Juncus tenuis Poverty rush, Path rush Perennial Grass/Grass-like Part-shade
Juniperus virginiana Eastern red cedar, Eastern redcedar, Virginia juniper, Red juniper, Pencil cedar, Carolina cedar, Red savin, Baton rouge Perennial Tree Sun, Shade, Part-shade Dry
Larix laricina Tamarack, American larch, Hacmatack, Black larch Perennial Tree Sun, Shade Wet, Moist
Liatris pilosa var. pilosa Shaggy blazing star, Grass-leaf blazingstar Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Liquidambar styraciflua Sweetgum, American sweetgum, Red gum, White gum, Star-leaved gum, Starleaf gum, Alligator tree, Satin walnut, Bilsted, Liquidambar Perennial Tree Part-shade Moist
Lobelia cardinalis Cardinal flower Perennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Lobelia siphilitica Great blue lobelia Perennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Ludwigia alternifolia Seedbox Perennial Herb Sun Wet, Moist
Lycopus uniflorus Northern bugleweed Perennial Herb
Maclura pomifera Osage orange, Bois d' arc, Bodark, Horse apple, Hedge apple, Bowwood, Yellowwood, Naranjo chino Perennial Tree Sun Dry
Mimulus alatus Sharpwing monkeyflower, Sharp-winged monkeyflower Perennial Herb
Mimulus ringens Allegheny monkeyflower, Square-stemmed monkeyflower, Square-stem monkeyflower Perennial Herb Sun Wet, Moist
Mitella diphylla Twoleaf miterwort, Miterwort Perennial Herb Shade Moist
Monarda fistulosa Wild bergamot, Beebalm Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Oenothera biennis Common evening-primrose, King's cure-all Biennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Dry
Oligoneuron riddellii Riddell's goldenrod Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Onoclea sensibilis Sensitive fern, Bead fern, Sympathy fern Perennial Herb, Fern Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Packera aurea Golden groundsel, Golden ragwort, Butterweed Perennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist
Packera obovata Golden groundsel, Roundleaf groundsel, Roundleaf ragwort, Squawweed Perennial Herb Shade, Part-shade Moist
Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeper Perennial Vine Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist
Penstemon calycosus Long-sepal penstemon, Long-sepal beardtongue Perennial Herb
Penstemon canescens Eastern gray penstemon, Eastern gray beardtongue Perennial Herb Part-shade Dry
Penstemon digitalis Mississippi penstemon, Mississippi beardtongue, Smooth white penstemon, Smooth white beardtongue, Talus slope penstemon, Talus slope beardtongue, Foxglove penstemon, Foxglove beardtongue Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Wet, Moist, Dry
Penstemon pallidus Pale penstemon, Pale beardtongue Perennial Herb Part-shade
Penstemon tubaeflorus White wand penstemon, White wand beardtongue Perennial Herb
Penthorum sedoides Ditch stonecrop Perennial Herb Part-shade Wet
Phemeranthus teretifolius Rock-portulaca, Quill Flameflower, Quill Fameflower Perennial Herb, Cactus/Succulent
Photinia floribunda Purple chokeberry, Red chokeberry Perennial Shrub
Photinia melanocarpa Black chokeberry Perennial Shrub Part-shade Moist
Physocarpus opulifolius Atlantic ninebark, Common ninebark Perennial Shrub Sun, Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist, Dry
Physostegia virginiana Fall obedient plant, False dragonhead, Virginia lions-heart Perennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist
Platanus occidentalis American sycamore, Eastern sycamore, American plane tree, Plane tree, Buttonwood, Buttonball tree Perennial Tree Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist
Polygonum virginianum Jumpseed Annual Herb
Prunus serotina Black cherry, Wild black cherry, Rum cherry Perennial Tree Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Pycnanthemum incanum Hoary mountain mint, Silverleaf mountain mint Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Pycnanthemum verticillatum var. pilosum Whorled Mountainmint
Quercus montana Chestnut Oak, Rock Chestnut Oak, Mountain Chestnut Oak, Rock Oak, Tanbark Oak Perennial Tree Part-shade Dry
Quercus rubra Northern red oak Perennial Tree Sun, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Rhus typhina Staghorn sumac, Velvet sumac Perennial Shrub, Tree Sun, Shade, Part-shade Dry
Rosa palustris Swamp rose Perennial Shrub Sun, Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Rubus flagellaris Northern dewberry Perennial Shrub Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist
Rubus occidentalis Black raspberry, Thimbleberry Perennial Shrub Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Rubus odoratus Purple-flowering raspberry, Thimbleberry Perennial Shrub Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist
Rubus pensilvanicus Pennsylvania blackberry Perennial Shrub Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist
Rudbeckia fulgida Orange coneflower, Orange Rudbeckia, Perennial black-eyed Susan Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Rudbeckia hirta Black-eyed Susan, Common black-eyed Susan, Brown-eyed Susan Annual Herb Sun Moist, Dry
Rudbeckia laciniata Green-headed coneflower, Greenhead coneflower, Cutleaf coneflower, Wild goldenglow, Sochan Perennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist
Rudbeckia subtomentosa Sweet coneflower, Sweet black-eyed Susan Perennial Herb Part-shade Moist
Rudbeckia triloba Browneyed Susan, Brown-eyed-Susan, Thin-leaved coneflower, Three-lobed Rudbeckia Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Ruellia humilis Prairie Petunia, Fringeleaf Wild Petunia, Hairy Ruellia, Low Wild Petunia, Low Ruellia, Fringeleaf Ruellia Perennial Herb Part-shade Moist
Ruellia strepens Limestone ruellia, Limestone wild petunia Perennial Herb
Salvia lyrata Lyreleaf sage, Cancer weed Perennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis Common elderberry, Black elder, Mexican elderberry, Common elder, Elderberry, Tapiro, Sauco Perennial Shrub Part-shade Wet
Schizachyrium scoparium Little bluestem, Popotillo azul Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun, Part-shade Dry
Scirpus cyperinus Woolgrass, Cottongrass bulrush, Marsh bulrush, Teddybear paws Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun Wet
Scutellaria lateriflora Blue skullcap Perennial Herb
Sedum ternatum Woodland stonecrop, Wild stonecrop Perennial Herb Part-shade Moist
Senna hebecarpa American senna, Wild Senna Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Moist
Silene stellata Widow's frill, Starry campion Perennial Herb Part-shade Moist
Silphium perfoliatum Cup plant, Indian cup Perennial Herb Sun Wet, Moist, Dry
Smilax rotundifolia Roundleaf greenbrier, Common greenbrier Perennial Shrub Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist
Solidago altissima Tall Goldenrod, Late Goldenrod, Canadian Goldenrod, Canada Goldenrod Perennial Herb Shade, Part-shade Moist
Solidago caesia Wreath goldenrod, Blue-stemmed goldenrod, Bluestem goldenrod Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Dry
Solidago juncea Early goldenrod, Plume goldenrod Perennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Solidago rugosa Wrinkleleaf goldenrod, Wrinkle-leaf goldenrod, Rough-leaved goldenrod, Roughleaf goldenrod, Rough-stemmed goldenrod, Roughstem goldenrod Perennial Herb Sun Wet
Solidago sempervirens Seaside goldenrod Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Solidago ulmifolia Elmleaf goldenrod, Elm-leaved goldenrod Perennial Herb Sun Dry
Sorghastrum nutans Indiangrass, Yellow indiangrass Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist, Dry
Spiraea alba var. latifolia Meadowsweet, White meadowsweet Perennial Shrub Sun Moist
Stylophorum diphyllum Celandine poppy, Yellow wood poppy Perennial Herb Shade, Part-shade Moist
Symphyotrichum cordifolium Broad-leaved aster, Common blue wood aster, Heartleaf aster Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Symphyotrichum lateriflorum Calico aster Perennial Herb Sun
Symphyotrichum novae-angliae New England aster, New England American-aster Perennial Herb Part-shade Moist
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii New York aster Perennial Herb
Symphyotrichum pilosum var. pilosum Hairy white oldfield aster, Frost aster Perennial Herb Sun
Symphyotrichum puniceum Purplestem aster, Purple-stemmed Aster Perennial Herb Sun Wet, Moist
Teucrium canadense Canada germander, American germander, Canadian germander, Germander, Hairy germander, Wood sage Perennial Herb Part-shade Moist
Thalictrum coriaceum Maid of the mist
Thalictrum dioicum Early meadow-rue Perennial Herb Part-shade Moist
Thalictrum pubescens King of the meadow, King-of-the-meadow Perennial Herb Part-shade Moist
Thelypteris palustris Eastern marsh fern, Marsh fern Perennial Herb, Fern Sun Wet
Tiarella cordifolia var. collina Heartleaf foamflower, Wherry's foamflower Perennial Herb Shade, Part-shade Moist
Tradescantia bracteata Bracted spiderwort, Long-bract spiderwort Perennial Herb Part-shade Moist
Tradescantia ohiensis Ohio spiderwort, Bluejacket Perennial Herb Part-shade Dry
Tridens flavus Purpletop tridens, Redtop tridens, Tall redtop tridens, Purpletop, Redtop, Tall redtop Perennial Grass/Grass-like Part-shade Dry
Typha angustifolia Narrowleaf Cattail
Typha latifolia Broadleaf cattail, Common cattail Perennial Grass/Grass-like Sun, Part-shade Wet
Valeriana pauciflora Largeflower valerian
Verbena hastata Swamp verbena, Blue verbena, Blue vervain, Simpler's joy Biennial Herb Sun, Shade, Part-shade Wet, Moist
Verbena urticifolia White vervain, White verbena Perennial Herb
Verbesina alternifolia Wingstem, Yellow ironweed Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Vernonia noveboracensis New York ironweed Perennial Herb Sun Moist
Veronicastrum virginicum Culver's root Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Moist
Viburnum lentago Nannyberry, Blackhaw, Sweet viburnum, Sheepberry Perennial Shrub Sun, Shade, Part-shade Moist
Viburnum nudum var. nudum Possumhaw Perennial Shrub, Tree
Viburnum prunifolium Blackhaw, Smooth blackhaw, Blackhaw viburnum, Smooth blackhaw viburnum, Stagbush Perennial Shrub Part-shade Moist
Viola affinis Sand violet, Pale early violet Perennial Herb Part-shade Moist
Viola pubescens Downy yellow violet Perennial Herb Part-shade Dry
Viola sororia Missouri violet, Common blue violet, Hooded blue violet, Florida violet, Meadow violet Annual Herb Sun, Part-shade Moist
Viola striata Striped cream violet, Striped violet Perennial Herb Part-shade Wet
Viola ×palmata Early blue violet, Trilobed violet Perennial Herb Part-shade Moist
Vitis aestivalis Summer Grape , Pigeon grape Perennial Vine
Zizia aurea Golden zizia, Golden Alexanders Perennial Herb Sun, Part-shade Moist