The Trans-Pecos area in Far West Texas is traversed by the eastern chain of the Rocky Mountains into the Basin and Range Province and is typical of the southwestern United States. Guadalupe Peak, having an elevation of 8,751 feet, of the Guadalupe Mountains, is the highest point in Texas. Surrounding peaks are El Capitan, Shumard, Bartlett, and Pine Top, all exceeding 8,000 feet. Mount Emory in the Chisos Mountains and Mount Locke in the Davis Mountains are 7,825 feet and 8,382 feet high, respectively. Notable canyons and gorges are Santa Elena, Boquillas, and Mariscal on the Big Bend of the Rio Grande; and McKittrick in the Guadalupe Mountains.
Uplands soils are mostly light reddish brown to brown clay loams, clays, and sands over reddish, loamy to clayey, calcareous, gypsic or saline subsoils. These include many areas of shallow soils and rocklands. Sizeable areas of deep sands exist. Drainage is rapid in the mountains, slow in the basins, and absent in the bolsons.
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